kinCSM: Using graph-based signatures to predict small molecule CDK2 inhibitors.

Yunzhuo Zhou; Raghad Al-Jarf; Azadeh Alavi; Thanh Binh Nguyen; Carlos H M Rodrigues; Douglas E V Pires; David B Ascher
Protein phosphorylation acts as an essential on/off switch in many cellular signaling pathways. This has led to ongoing interest in targeting kinases for therapeutic intervention. Computer-aided drug discovery has been proven a useful and cost-effective approach for facilitating prioritization and enrichment of screening libraries, but limited effort has been devoted providing insights on what makes a potent kinase inhibitor. To fill this gap, here we developed kinCSM, an integrative computational tool capable of accurately identifying potent cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) inhibitors, quantitatively predicting CDK2 ligand-kinase inhibition constants (pK<sub>i</sub> ) and classifying different types of inhibitors based on their favorable binding modes. kinCSM predictive models were built using supervised learning and leveraged the concept of graph-based signatures to capture both physicochemical properties and geometry properties of small molecules. CDK2 inhibitors were accurately identified with Matthew's Correlation Coefficients (MCC) of up to 0.74, and inhibition constants predicted with Pearson's correlation of up to 0.76, both with consistent performances of 0.66 and 0.68 on a nonredundant blind test, respectively. kinCSM was also able to identify the potential type of inhibition for a given molecule, achieving MCC of up to 0.80 on cross-validation and 0.73 on the blind test. Analyzing the molecular composition of revealed enriched chemical fragments in CDK2 inhibitors and different types of inhibitors, which provides insights into the molecular mechanisms behind ligand-kinase interactions. kinCSM will be an invaluable tool to guide future kinase drug discovery. To aid the fast and accurate screening of CDK2 inhibitors, kinCSM is freely available at
ISSN 1469-896X
Published 01 Nov 2022
Volume 31
Issue 11
Pages e4453
DOI 10.1002/pro.4453
Type Journal Article | Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't