Immunological Insights into Cigarette Smoking-Induced Cardiovascular Disease Risk.
Albert Dahdah; Robert M Jaggers; Gopalkrishna Sreejit; Jillian Johnson; Babunageswararao Kanuri; Andrew J Murphy; Prabhakara R Nagareddy
Smoking is one of the most prominent addictions of the modern world, and one of the leading preventable causes of death worldwide. Although the number of tobacco smokers is believed to be at a historic low, electronic cigarette use has been on a dramatic rise over the past decades. Used as a replacement for cigarette smoking, electronic cigarettes were thought to reduce the negative effects of burning tobacco. Nonetheless, the delivery of nicotine by electronic cigarettes, the most prominent component of cigarette smoke (CS) is still delivering the same negative outcomes, albeit to a lesser extent than CS. Smoking has been shown to affect both the structural and functional aspects of major organs, including the lungs and vasculature. Although the deleterious effects of smoking on these organs individually is well-known, it is likely that the adverse effects of smoking on these organs will have long-lasting effects on the cardiovascular system. In addition, smoking has been shown to play an independent role in the homeostasis of the immune system, leading to major sequela. Both the adaptive and the innate immune system have been explored regarding CS and have been demonstrated to be altered in a way that promotes inflammatory signals, leading to an increase in autoimmune diseases, inflammatory diseases, and cancer. Although the mechanism of action of CS has not been fully understood, disease pathways have been explored in both branches of the immune system. The pathophysiologically altered immune system during smoking and its correlation with cardiovascular diseases is not fully understood. Here we highlight some of the important pathological mechanisms that involve cigarette smoking and its many components on cardiovascular disease and the immune systems in order to have a better understanding of the mechanisms at play.
|Published||11 Oct 2022|
|Type||Journal Article | Review|