Molecular and pro-inflammatory aspects of COVID-19: The impact on cardiometabolic health.

Elena Lo Presti; Domenico Nuzzo; Wael Al Mahmeed; Khalid Al-Rasadi; Kamila Al-Alawi; Maciej Banach; Yajnavalka Banerjee; Antonio Ceriello; Mustafa Cesur; Francesco Cosentino; Alberto Firenze; Massimo Galia; Su-Yen Goh; Andrej Janez; Sanjay Kalra; Nitin Kapoor; Peter Kempler; Nader Lessan; Paulo Lotufo; Nikolaos Papanas; Ali A Rizvi; Amirhossein Sahebkar; Raul D Santos; Anca P Stoian; Peter P Toth; Vijay Viswanathan; Manfredi Rizzo;
Obesity, type 2 diabetes (T2DM), hypertension (HTN), and Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) often cluster together as "Cardiometabolic Disease" (CMD). Just under 50% of patients with CMD increased the risk of morbidity and mortality right from the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic as it has been reported in most countries affected by the SARS-CoV2 virus. One of the pathophysiological hallmarks of COVID-19 is the overactivation of the immune system with a prominent IL-6 response, resulting in severe and systemic damage involving also cytokines such as IL2, IL4, IL8, IL10, and interferon-gamma were considered strong predictors of COVID-19 severity. Thus, in this mini-review, we try to describe the inflammatory state, the alteration of the adipokine profile, and cytokine production in the obese state of infected and not infected patients by SARS-CoV2 with the final aim to find possible influences of COVID-19 on CMD and CVD. The immunological-based discussion of the molecular processes could inspire the study of promising targets for managing CMD patients and its complications during COVID-19.
ISSN 1879-260X
Published 01 Dec 2022
Volume 1868
Issue 12
Pages 166559 166559
DOI 10.1016/j.bbadis.2022.166559
Type Journal Article | Review